The following 13 out of 15 criteria
|1.||Serve as a robust indicator of environmental change|
|2.||Reflect a fundamental or highly-valued aspect of the environment or an important environmental issue|
|3.||Be either national in scope or applicable to regional environmental issues of national significance|
|4.||Provide an early warning of potential problems|
|5.||Be capable of being monitored to provide statistically verifiable and reproducible data that shows trends over time and, preferably, apply to a broad range of environmental regions|
|6.||Be scientifically credible|
|7.||Be easy to understand|
|8.||Be monitored with relative ease|
|10.||Have relevance to policy and management needs|
|11.||Contribute to monitoring of progress towards implementing commitments in nationally important environmental policies|
|13.||Contribute to the fulfillment of reporting obligations under international agreements|
|15.||Where possible and appropriate, be consistent and comparable with other countriesï¿½ and state and territory indicators|
Temporal range of the available data, as described by the metadata record, is from 01-Nov-1984 .
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' This data set conforms to the PICCCBY Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/). Please follow instructions listed in the citation reference provided at http://data.aad.gov.au/aadc/metadata/citation.cfm?entry_id=SOE_greenhouse_gas when using these data. '
' See the URL below for State of the Environment indicator 11 for access to these data. A copy of the raw data are also available for download from the URL given below. '
The three gases carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) together contribute around 70% of the anthropogenic greenhouse forcing. All three gases have lifetimes much longer than interhemispheric mixing and the major source and sink regions are in the northern hemisphere. Thus detection of coherent changes at high southern latitudes is an unambiguous indication of global change. The following report describes data from the CSIRO network including Mawson, Casey, Macquarie Island (also Cape Grim, South Pole). Since 1999, there has been has been a dramatic slowdown at all southern sites in the annual growth of methane that is unprecedented in the last two decades of monitoring. The growth rate is actually negative in 2001/2002, and remains zero or less over the last three years. The annual average level in 2001 was 1706 ppb. Over the last 8 years, global CO2 has increased at 1.75 ppm/year, significantly above the 1.5 ppm/year of the previous decade. Record growth rates in 1997/98 attributed in part to huge tropical biomass burning, contribute to this increased long-term growth. The annual average level in 2001 was 368.3 ppm. The N2O trends share many features with CO2. Over the last 8 years the increase has been 0.8 ppb/year with higher growth around the 1997-1998 period. The annual average level in 2001 was 316 ppb.
For definitions of the Scale categories, consult the Explanation of the Status Categories
|Metadata SOE_greenhouse_gas - Air sampling for greenhouse gas concentrations and associated species|
|Project 98 - Antarctic and Southern Ocean atmospheric aerosol study|
|Project 1133 - The consequences of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations on inorganic carbon acquisition and photosynthetic performance of Antarctic macroalgae|
|Project 2282 - Atmospheric sulfur species at high southern latitudes|
|Scientific Bibliography 17284 - Francey, Roger J., Paul (L.P.) Steele, Ray L. Langenfelds, Marco Lucarelli, Colin E. Allison, David J. Beardsmore, Scott A. Coram, Nada Derek, Fred de Silva, David M. Etheridge, Paul J. Fraser, Reg J. Henry, Brian Turner and Emily D. Welch (1996). Global Atmospheric Sampling Laboratory (GASLAB) (1993) supporting and extending the Cape Grim trace gas programs, Baseline Atmospheric Program (Australia) 1993. (eds. R.J.Francey, A.L.Dick and N.Derek) Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Melbourne, pp 8-29.|
|Scientific Bibliography 17285 - Francey, R.J., P.J. Rayner and C.E. Allison (2001) Constraining the global carbon budget from global to regional scales - the measurement challenge. In: Global Biogeochemical Cycles in the Climate System, Academic Press, New York, p245-252.|
|SOE Indicator 1 - Monthly mean air temperatures at Australian Antarctic Stations|
|SOE Indicator 2 - Highest monthly air temperatures at Australian Antarctic Stations|
|SOE Indicator 3 - Lowest monthly air temperatures at Australian Antarctic Stations|
|SOE Indicator 4 - Monthly mean lower stratospheric temperatures above Australian Antarctic Stations|
|SOE Indicator 12 - Noctilucent cloud observations at Davis|
|SOE Indicator 14 - Midwinter atmospheric temperature at altitude 87km|
The properties link can be used to view details of the parameters measured for this indicator.
|Parameter Name||Unit of measure||Properties|
|Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide - C13 isotope concentration||per mil||Properties|
|Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide concentration||ppm||Properties|
|Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide concentration||ppb||Properties|
|Atmospheric Hydrogen concentration||ppb||Properties|
|Atmospheric methane concentration||ppb||Properties|
|Atmospheric nitrous oxide concentration||ppb||Properties|
The following parameters and/or sensor notes are from the metadata record.
Citation reference for this metadata record and dataset
Download page for Australian Antarctic Data Centre
Download point for the raw data